Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. At 187 metres (614 feet), it is 44 metres (144 feet) higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the southwest. The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century that now composes Zamalek and Gezira. However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. 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[14][15] Its official name al-Qāhirah  (Arabic: القاهرة‎) means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror", supposedly due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir (Arabic: النجم القاهر‎, "the Conquering Star"), was rising at the time when the city was founded,[16] possibly also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. [123][124] Another Abbasid construction, the Nilometer on Rhoda Island, is the oldest original structure in Cairo, built in 862 AD. Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers can cause severe flooding. [129] The most famous example still intact today is the Wikala al-Ghuri, which nowadays also hosts regular performances by the Al-Tannoura Egyptian Heritage Dance Troupe. Around the turn of the 4th century,[22] as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance,[23] the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile. Concurrently, Cairo has established itself as a political and economic hub for North Africa and the Arab world, with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the Arab League, operating out of the city. The subway system, officially called "Metro (مترو)", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. [138] The problem has persisted in spite of new national laws since 2014 defining and criminalizing sexual harassment. The Citadel is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo, which dates back to the Fatimid era and the foundation of Cairo. Because of the influx of people into the city, lone standing houses are rare, and apartment buildings accommodate for the limited space and abundance of people. Minor amendments were made later in 1924 and in 1936 - the "Faruq edition" in honour of then ruler, King Faruq. [32][39][40] However, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Cairo remained an important economic and cultural centre. It represented the first large-scale attempt to promote its own architecture, known now as the Heliopolis style. Egypt later won the competition and went on to win the next edition in Ghana (2008) making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back which resulted in Egypt winning the title for a record number of six times in the history of African Continental Competition. Then follow the directions and go to the luggage transfer point. plane, train, bus, car, ferry, bike share, driving and walking directions all in one search. Governorate Cairo is considered a city-proper and functions as a municipality. [140] In 2020, the social media account "Assault Police" began to name and shame perpetrators of violence against women. [58] Isma'il also sought to modernize the city, which was merging with neighbouring settlements, by establishing a public works ministry, bringing gas and lighting to the city, and opening a theatre and opera house. [118] To the north of this Coptic enclave is the Amr ibn al-'As Mosque, the first mosque in Egypt and the most important religious centre of what was formerly Fustat, founded in 642 AD right after the Arab conquest but rebuilt many times since. Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded. Egypt's Nour El Sherbini has won the Women's World Championship twice and has been women's world number one for 16 consecutive months. No new date has been set for the visit. An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. [19] Cairo is also referred to as ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, which means Egypt in Coptic, the same way it's referred to in Egyptian Arabic. The contingent comprises 57 members of Spain’s Civil Guard and National Police, two patrol boats, and a helicopter based on the port of Dakar. [64] Nevertheless, this led to Egypt's independence in 1922. Old Cairo, located south of the centre, holds the remnants of Fustat and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian community, Coptic Cairo. [71] The publication has been called a "terrific success", and the edition has been described as one "now widely seen as the official text of the Qur’an", so popular among both Sunni and Shi'a that the common belief among less well-informed Muslims is "that the Qur’an has a single, unambiguous reading". Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence. [83] On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Hosni Mubarak resigned from office. [144], In recent years, a black cloud (as Egyptians refer to it) of smog has appeared over Cairo every autumn due to temperature inversion. [84], Cairo is located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt, 165 kilometres (100 mi) south of the Mediterranean Sea and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal. While western Cairo is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and Islamic architecture. Egypt is internationally known for the excellence of its squash players who excel in both professional and junior divisions. Single detached houses are symbolic of the wealthy. [88][89], Until the mid-19th century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level. Over the years, the Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the city now stands. The land on which Cairo was established in 969 (present-day Islamic Cairo) was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when Fustat was first built. Because of this, it is difficult to divide Cairo into urban, rural, subdivisions, or to eliminate certain parts of the metropolitan administrative territory on various theme (unofficial statistics and data). Sánchez is also scheduled to pay a visit to Spanish police working with Senegalese counterparts to crack down on human trafficking across the West African coast. [139] The situation is so severe that in 2017 Cairo was named by one poll as the most dangerous megacity for women in the world. [101] New development includes several high-end residential developments. [87] The Cairo Governorate was just north of the Helwan Governorate from 2008 when some Cairo's southern districts, including Maadi and New Cairo, were split off and annexed into the new governorate,[93] to 2011 when the Helwan Governorate was reincorporated into the Cairo Governorate. Some argue that it was a name of an Egyptian settlement upon which Cairo was built, but it's rather doubtful as this name is not attested in any Hieroglyphic or Demotic source, although some researchers, like Paul Casanova, view it as a legitimate theory. The Cairo International Stadium was built in 1960 and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the African Games, U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the 2006 Africa Cup of Nations which was played in January 2006. Nationalists staged large-scale demonstrations in Cairo in 1919,[32] five years after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate. There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo districts. [75], The city was devastated during the 1952 riots known as the Cairo Fire or Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly 700 shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in downtown Cairo. The request was granted. [25] When Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in Tunisia in 973, he gave the city its present name, Qāhirat al-Mu'izz ("The Vanquisher of al-Mu'izz").[24]. [28] As the first Sultan of Egypt, Saladin established the Ayyubid dynasty, based in Cairo, and aligned Egypt with the Abbasids, who were based in Baghdad. The Mamluks, and the later Ottomans, also built wikalas or caravanserais to house merchants and goods due to the important role of trade and commerce in Cairo's economy. There are a few Coptic names of the city. By 1340, Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of China. [46] The city was the second-largest in the empire, behind Constantinople, and, although migration was not the primary source of Cairo's growth, twenty percent of its population at the end of the 18th century consisted of religious minorities and foreigners from around the Mediterranean. This was known as al-Askar (the city of sections, or cantonments) as it was laid out like a military camp. [128] The western bank of the Nile is commonly included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of Giza and the Giza Governorate. The British occupation was intended to be temporary, but it lasted well into the 20th century. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.[8]. It has 136,000 items on display, with many more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms. Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want. Lead has been shown to cause harm to the central nervous system and neurotoxicity particularly in children. [76] The British departed Cairo following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but the city's rapid growth showed no signs of abating. Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police aiding in traffic control of some congested areas. Influence from modern western society is also evident, with American chains such as McDonald's, Arby's, Pizza Hut, Subway, and Kentucky Fried Chicken being easy to find in central areas.[107]. Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city, from March to May and the air often becomes uncomfortably dry. Part of that solution is to resume flights of forced returns to Senegal, a program that has been halted since 2018. The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government. [57] Drawing inspiration from Paris, Isma'il envisioned a city of maidans and wide avenues; due to financial constraints, only some of them, in the area now composing Downtown Cairo, came to fruition. The Khedivial Opera House, or Royal Opera House, was the original opera house in Cairo. Continuing a practice started by the Ayyubids, much of the land occupied by former Fatimid palaces was sold and replaced by newer buildings. The city's most exclusive restaurants are typically concentrated in Zamalek and around the luxury hotels lining the shore of the Nile near the Garden City district. Smog causes serious respiratory diseases and eye irritations for the city's citizens. Nagib Mahfooz novels, all tell great stories about Cairo's deep conflicts. Greater Cairo's volatile aromatic hydrocarbon levels are higher than many other similar cities. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in all directions, the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of 453 square kilometres (175 sq mi). The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of almost 200,000 Jewish manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue (built 882) of Fustat, Egypt (now Old Cairo), the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo in the later 19th century. The King Fuad I Edition of the Qur’an[65] was first published on 10 July 1924 in Cairo under the patronage of King Fuad. It was first named Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, who commissioned the new downtown district's 'Paris on the Nile' design. Today, the Egyptian capital has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Women are reported to face constant discrimination, sexual harassment, and abuse throughout Cairo. Cairo accounts for 11% of Egypt's population and 22% of its economy (PPP). Padilla was a freelancer, who had worked for Joseph on two jobs before traveling to Angola to repossess 844AA. [86][87] Geologically, Cairo lies on alluvium and sand dunes which date from the quaternary period. Much of the collection of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, including the Tutankhamun collection, are slated to be moved to the new Grand Egyptian Museum, under construction in Giza and due to open by the end of 2020.[116][117]. The Cairo Metro is one of the only two metro systems in Africa (the other being in Algiers, Algeria), and ranks amongst the fifteen busiest in the world,[10] with over 1 billion[11] annual passenger rides. United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerement of Women, History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, Arab Academy for Science & Technology and Maritime Transport, Misr University for Science and Technology, Heliopolis University for Sustainable Development, Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile), Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt, "Population distribution by selected age groups, sex and governorate according to final results of 2017 Pop.Census (201993091923pop.pdf)",, "Population Estimates By Sex & Governorate 1/1/2020 (20204139534pop.pdf)", "Historic Cairo – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Cairo – "Al-Qahira" – is Egypt's capital and the largest city in the Middle East and Africa", Globalization and World Cities Research Network, "Cairo's third metro line beats challenges", "The 150 Richest Cities in the World by GDP in 2005", "Talk:Wp/cop/ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ – Wikimedia Incubator", بلال فضل يتفرغ لـ"أهل اسكندرية" بعد "أهل كايرو",, Studies in two transmissions of the Qur'an, Böwering, "Recent Research on the Construction of the Quran", 2008, Gender and Muslim Constructions of Exegetical Authority: A Rereading of the Classical Genre of Qurʾān Commentary, Reynolds, "Quranic studies and its controversies", 2008, "Egypt protests: Anti-Mubarak demonstrators arrested", "Egyptians report poor communication services on Day of Anger", "Egypt protests: curfew defied in Cairo and other cities", "Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali forced to flee Tunisia as protesters claim victory", "Egypt unveils plans to build new capital east of Cairo", "World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification", "Biblical snowstorm: Rare flakes in Cairo, Jerusalem paralyzed by over a foot", "Cairo Climate Guide: Monthly Weather, Egypt", "To Catch Cairo Overflow, 2 Megacities Rise in Sand", Map of Greater Cairo & SODIC Developments, "Al-Ahram Weekly | Features | Reaching an impasse", "Egypt to build country's first ever monorail in Cairo", "Cairo monorail trains to be built in UK", "Panda, Buy from Mod Car. The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre. [47] Still, when Napoleon arrived in Cairo in 1798, the city's population was less than 300,000, forty percent lower than it was at the height of Mamluk—and Cairene—influence in the mid-14th century. [85] The city lies along the Nile River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into the low-lying Nile Delta region. [90], Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil, first appeared in 1174, but eventually became connected to the mainland. In summer, the highs rarely surpass 40 °C (104 °F), and lows drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Cairo produces 10,000 tons of waste material each day, 4,000 tons of which is not collected or managed. [32][47], The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in 1801. An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. It was built in 876–879 AD in a style inspired by the Abbasid capital of Samarra in Iraq. In 1998, the Festival took place under the presidency of one of Egypt's leading actors, Hussein Fahmy, who was appointed by the Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni, after the death of Saad El-Din Wahba.